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Kusadasi Guide
©Copyright by OTTI
1998-2012

All Rights Reserved

   

His Childhood:

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was born in 1881 in Salonica. He belongs to a family whose origins are from the nomads who immigrated from Anatolia to Rumelia. It was Zubeyde Hanim's - his mother duty - to bring up Mustafa after the death of Ali Riza Bey - his father- when he was seven years old. Mustafa also had two little sisters whose names were Makbule and Naciye. 

His Education:

In 1893 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk decided to join in a military school which was called Askeri Rustiye. In this school he had a maths teacher who was also called Mustafa so because of having the same name he started to call Mustafa Ataturk with the name Kemal which means perfection in English. From then on he was called Mustafa Kemal. In 1896 when he graduated from Selanik Askeri Rustiyesi (Selanik Military School) he joined in Manastir Askeri Idadisi which was another military school. Apart from his military education he was also improving his languages and practicing French in summers. Mustafa Kemal graduated on 13th March in 1899 and continued his education in Istanbul Harp School which is also a military school in Istanbul. He graduated from this school as a lieutenant. In 1905 he became a staff captain. Because he freely talked and expressed his feelings about the government and the administration of the state as a sort of banishment to Damascus Syria.

 

Banishment in Damascus:

During his stay in Damascus when he was at the command of the fifth army, he, because of his duty, traveled the whole Syria and witnessed the abuses in the government administration. Mustafa Kemal in 1906 in October with his friends who he could trust founded Vatan ve Hurriyet Cemiyeti which is an organization of the state and the freedom in English. With his friends he extended the borders of this organization in Beirut and Jerusalem. Meanwhile he became an Adjutant Major in 1907 and appointed as a Staff Officer's Head of the army in Damascus. Mustafa Kemal was appointed to the third army on 13th October in 1907. He went to Salonica to work in Salonica branch of this army. Meanwhile the organization called Vatan ve Hurriyet was actively working with the members of another organization called Ittihat ve Terakki which means in English Party of Union and Progress in which Mustafa Kemal was one of the members. In 1876 the Party of Union and Progress forced the emperor Abdulhamit to start applying the Constitution and to open the parliament called Meclis-i Mebusan once again which was closed. These bring the declaration of Mesrutiyet II in English the Second Constitutional Government.

The Second Constitutional Government:

On 23rd July 1908 the Second Constitutional Government was declared and during the time Mustafa Kemal was the Adjutant Major in Salonica and also taking place actively in the Party of Union and Progress. What he thought about the new system was that it was not enough to get rid of all the evil in the government and something more had to be done but the Party of Union and Progress did not agree with him. After a year of the declaration of the second Constitutional Government a rebellion had occured by the fanatics which was called 31st March Rebellion. Mustafa Kemal appointed to the Operation Army as the General Staff and with this army he went to Istanbul on 19th April 1909. After the Operation Army succeeded the emperor Abdulhamit dethroned and Sultan Resit became the emperor. 

On 5th October 1911 Italians attacked Tripoli to conquer. Mustafa Kemal was sent there to defense Tripoli against the Italians on 15th October 1911. In October 1912 the War of the Balkans broke out.

The First World War:

With the attack of the Germans to Russia on 1st August 1914 the First World War broke out. According to Mustafa Kemal the Ottoman Empire had to stay away from this war but on 29th October 1914 Ottoman Empire also joined in the war with the Alliance States. 

Gallipoli Battle:

 The English Fleet on 18th March 1915 attempted to sail through Dardanelle's Strait but the artilleryman of the Ottoman succeeded in defeating them. However because they couldn't sail through the strait they tried to conquer Gallipoli Peninsula. But Ottoman's 5th Army was ready to defend the peninsula. Mustafa Kemal was also ready with his division. The enemy on 25th April 1915 attacked Seddulbahir and Ariburnu. There they came across with the 19th Division of Mustafa Kemal who forced them to walk back. The motto of the soldiers of Mustafa Kemal was to die as he commanded them as " I do not command you to assault, I command you to die!" Although on 25th April 1915 the enemy was forced to withdraw, they continued attacking on 26th and 27th April 1915 as well. However every assault was resulted with the success of the Turkish soldiers.

On 30th October 1918 Ottoman Empire with signing the Mondros Ceasefire Agreement ended the First World War. The agreement's articles were very strict for the Turks. According to it every single city and town were shared between the victorious states. Italians share was Antalya, Iskenderun, Adana, Mersin, Antep, Maras, Urfa which is the southern part of Turkey. Kars started to be governed by the English. The emperors were selfishly thinking of how to escape without thinking to rescue the empire. The Greeks forced the Annihilation States to give Izmir to them and they reached their goal on 15th May 1919. Although Mustafa Kemal warned the others not to let the enemy to get the control of the army he couldn't make himself listened. According to Mustafa Kemal the aim had to be establishing a new and independent Turkish State which was ruled by the Turks. According to him the important thing was living in honor. Because of this the motto of the Independence War would be " Either independence or death!"

  Kusadasi Guide