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Kusadasi Guide
©Copyright by OTTI
1998-2012

All Rights Reserved

   

Independence War:

On 16th May 1919 Mustafa Kemal left Istanbul on the boat called Bandirma and arrived in Samsun on 19th May 1919 this is the first step of the independence war of the Turks with the commander Mustafa Kemal. On 22nd June 1919 with the notice of Amasya the National Defense started by Ataturk's signature in practice. On 16th March 1920 Istanbul was completely conquered by the Annihilation States. Mustafa Kemal after the conquer of Istanbul commanded to choose new parliamentarians for the parliament who would meet on 23rd April 1920 and in a very short time it took the control against the enemy. Town by town Anatolia was cleaned off the enemy with the help of Mustafa Kemal's soldiers. On 2/3 December 1920 Armenians with the Agreement of Gumru left Ardahan and Artvin, On 12th February 1920 the French left Maras and on 11th April Urfa, with the Agreement of Ankara they left Adana, Mersin, Gaziantep, the Greeks left Bursa with the First Inonu War on 11th January 1921. The victory of the Independence War was not only achieved by the Turkish soldiers and Mustafa Kemal but also by the Turkish People who directly or indirectly joined in the war by helping the army with food and clothes apart from carrying the ammunition. With the 30th August Victory Kutahya was rescued from the Greeks. On 1st September 1922 Usak, 2nd September Eskisehir, 3rd September Nazilli, Simay, Salihli, Alasehir and Gordes, on 6th September Balikesir and Bilecik, 7th September Aydin, 8th September Manisa, 9th September 1922 Izmir was cleared off the enemy by the Turkish Soldiers.

Ataturk's Principles:

Republicanism:

In Republican regimes both the rulers and the ruled are very important. The first reason is that both have to be honest. In this regime honesty has a crucial importance and the relations between these two has an important role too because then the republic can protect itself against the interior and exterior enemies. This relation must be limited with the principles of the republican regime and must not be overrun because if it was then there occurred a gap between the nation and the republic. In the countries which adopt the regime of Republic freedom is limited with the rules of democracy which are the laws. With this brief explanation, according to Ataturk the Republic, which was proclaimed on 29th October 1923, should be based on secular principles, the new state of Republic should be protected by the law system. The new generation of this new system which would be protected by law should be educated by the broad-minded teachers who knew the value of independence and freedom. Every illogical remaining from the empire period would be demolished and the foundations of the Republic would be based on positive sciences. Ataturk was aware that, a population without knowledge and consciousness may not have the right to be a nation, a nation would possess rights and laws in a ratio based on the level of his consciousness. That was the reason of culture - which was the basic essential of a republic - and training. According to Ataturk apart from protecting the republic what one must do first of all was deserving it! And education is the key element to understand the value of republic and trying to deserve it. That is why the new generation of Ataturk should be given a contemporary education which will lead to understanding the importance of the new regime.

Nationalism

Ataturk, with founding the new state as well as its regime, he made the Turks change into a nation from a religious community. According to him every revolution would be achieved with the nation but not despite the nation, every novelty would exist eternally only if it adapted by the nation. According to his nationalism, whoever identified himself as a Turk within the borders of the country represents the Turkish Nation. 

Populism:

Without any class, was based on a society!

State Control:

Ataturk says: " The state rule which we follow is based on individual diligence and efforts but at the same time on the subjects relevantly tied up to high and public advantages of the nation. Especially in economic fields practically state should be involved to overview economic measures. These two terms of Populism and State Control equals today's terminology of Social Justice and State which are terms many of today's modern democracies are based on." 

Secularism:

This is the separation of religious affairs and state work. Ataturk was never an opponent of religion, in contrary he believed it was necessary for the society however when it was the question of replacing it with law, logic and mentality then he was against it. He was opposed to merchants of religion, fundamentalists and those who wanted to rule the public with superstitions. Religion, according to him had to be kept in the one's conscience which was a holy concept. On 31st January 1923 he said: "Our religion is a most natural and logical one and it is for this reason that it is the last of religions. In order for a religion to be natural it must co-exist with science, knowledge and logic. Our religion completely complies with these prerequisites. Above, we defined that secularity is the separation of State and religious affairs but this does not mean that everybody can do everything about religion without the interference of the State. Moreover, State power may be used for any belief system. In this case the freedom of conscience will be obliterated for believers and non-believers." 

Progressivism:

According to him progressivism could be achieved by walking on a path illuminated with the light of science.

  Kusadasi Guide